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Cortisol is one of the many hormones produced in your body which serve as chemical messengers.

While commonly referred to as the stress hormone due to its role in your body’s stress response, it has a number of other important functions.

Some people wonder if cortisol levels have an influence on body weight.

This article details the potential effect of cortisol on weight gain, including some ways to reduce its levels in your body.

What is cortisol and how does it affect your body?

Cortisol is an important steroid hormone that belongs to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids.

It’s produced in the adrenal glands found just above your kidneys.

In addition to aiding in your body’s stress response, its other roles include:

  • increasing blood sugar
  • reducing inflammation
  • suppressing the immune system
  • aiding in nutrient metabolism

Cortisol is generally released in close relation with your body’s circadian rhythm with 50–60% of it being released with 30–40 minutes of waking, and levels then falling throughout the day. Its production and release is regulated by your pituitary gland and the hypothalamus located in your brain.

During times of increased stress, cortisol and adrenaline are released from your adrenal glands. This triggers an increase in heart rate and energy levels, preparing your body for a potentially harmful situation.

While this response is normal, continued elevations in cortisol can lead to negative side effects.

Do cortisol levels affect weight?

Among the numerous factors influencing your body weight, hormone regulation is an important one.

While hormones such as cortisol are usually kept within a tight range by your body’s endocrine system, there are certain situations in which they can become low or elevated.

High levels may promote overeating

Small rises in cortisol levels in response to stress are normal and not likely to cause negative side effects.

Yet, in certain instances, cortisol levels may remain chronically elevated.

This is usually due to stress or a condition like Cushing’s syndrome, which causes blood levels of cortisol to remain high.

When cortisol levels remain elevated, the following side effects may occur

  • weight gain
  • high blood pressure
  • fatigue
  • changes in mood
  • irritability
  • flushed face
  • thinning skin
  • difficulty concentrating
  • insulin resistance

When under chronic stress, it may be difficult to maintain healthful eating habits.

One study in 59 healthy women found an association between elevated cortisol levels and an increase in appetite, which could potentially promote weight gain.

In addition, another study found an association between a higher cortisol response and a higher amount of belly fat in a group of 172 men and women, suggesting that higher cortisol may lead to overeating.

That said, levels of stress and cortisol aren’t always directly related, thus more data is needed to establish a direct relationship.

Low levels may cause weight loss

Just as high cortisol levels may cause weight gain, low levels may cause weight loss in some instances.

The most extreme example is in Addison’s disease, a condition in which your body doesn’t produce enough cortisol.

The most notable symptoms of low cortisol include.

  • decreased appetite and weight loss
  • fatigue
  • low blood sugar
  • salt cravings
  • dizziness
  • nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain
  • muscle or bone pain

While high cortisol levels may seem more common, it’s important to be aware of the effects of low cortisol as well.

How to prevent and combat weight gain due to cortisol levels

While there may be many stressors in your life potentially contributing to elevated cortisol, there are several effective methods for managing your levels and preventing or combating weight gain.

Stay active

One of the main ways to combat weight gain is to engage in regular physical activity.

Regular exercise has been associated with a reduction in stress levels and allows you to be more resilient when stressors present themselves

One study in 3,425 participants who reported emotional eating found an association between their level of physical activity and BMI (body mass index)

What’s more, exercising stimulates the release of endorphins, which are feel-good chemicals that promote happiness and can help manage stress

Regular physical activity can also promote weight loss or weight management due to the calories burned while exercising

Practice mindful eating

Another powerful tool for managing weight gain due to stress is practicing mindful, or intuitive, eating.

Mindfulness comes from a Buddhist concept meaning to be fully present and aware of what you’re doing at a given moment

Mindful eating applies this concept to food, encouraging you to be fully aware of your eating experience, including specific cues, such as hunger, fullness, taste, and texture

One large cross-sectional study found an association between the practice of intuitive eating and a lower body weight.

A simple way to start practicing mindful eating is to do away with distractions at meals, allowing you to be fully aware of hunger and fullness cues.

Speak to a therapist or dietitian

Another potential way to deal with weight gain that could be related to high cortisol levels is to speak with a qualified practitioner, dietitian, nutritionist.

A therapist can assist you in coming up with some strategies to reduce overall stress, which in turn may help you manage emotional eating.

On the other hand, a dietitian can provide nutrition education to equip you with the tools you need to make more healthful decisions surrounding food.

The dual-prong approach to improving your food habits and emotional well-being is an excellent step in preventing or combating weight gain.

Get more sleep

Sleep is a commonly overlooked variable that has a significant effect on cortisol levels and potential weight gain.

Disruptions to your sleep pattern — whether chronic or acute — can promote an unhealthy increase in cortisol levels.

Over time, this can have a negative effect on your metabolism and cause an increase in certain hormones related to hunger and appetite, potentially leading to weight gain.

Therefore, ensuring that you’re getting adequate sleep each night can go a long way toward maintaining healthy cortisol levels.

The general recommendation for sleep is 7–9 hours per night, though this varies by age and other factors.

Practice meditation

Yet another potential tool for managing cortisol levels is meditation.

The purpose of meditation is to train your mind to focus and redirect your thoughts.

While several types of meditation exist, the most commonly practiced ones are mindful, spiritual, focused, movement, mantra.

Regardless of which you choose, practicing meditation has been associated with a reduction in cortisol levels in various populations.

In addition, meditation may even help improve the quality of your sleep.

Visit our blog 40 FOODS THAT LOWER AND MAINTAIN CORTISOL LEVELS and try to include those foods in your daily routine.

Curated By Dt. Vidhhi Mehtaa